Interest Rate Risk
Remember the cardinal rule of bonds: When interest rates fall, bond prices rise, and when interest rates rise, bond prices fall. Interest rate risk is the risk that changes in interest rates in the U.S. or the world may reduce (or increase) the market value of a bond you hold. Interest rate riskalso referred to as market riskincreases the longer you hold a bond.
Let's look at the risks inherent in rising interest rates.
If you bought a 10-year, $1,000 bond today at a coupon rate of 4 percent, and interest rates rise to 6 percent, two things can happen.
Say you need to sell your 4 percent bond prior to maturity. In doing so, you must compete with newer bonds carrying higher coupon rates. These higher coupon rate bonds decrease the appetite for older bonds that pay lower interest. This decreased demand depresses the price of older bonds in the secondary market, which would translate into you receiving a lower price for your bond if you need to sell it. In fact, you may have to sell your bond for less than you paid for it. For this reason, interest rate risk is also referred to as market risk.
Rising interest rates also make new bonds more attractive (because they earn a higher coupon rate). This results in what's known as opportunity riskthe risk that a better opportunity will come around that you may be unable to act upon. The longer the term of your bond, the greater the chance that a more attractive investment opportunity will become available, or that any number of other factors may occur that negatively impact your investment. This also is referred to as holding period riskthe risk that not only a better opportunity might be missed, but that something may happen during the time you hold a bond to negatively affect your investment.
Bond fund managers face the same risks as individual bondholders. When interest rates riseespecially when they go up sharply in a short period of timethe value of the fund's existing bonds drops, which can put a drag on overall fund performance.
Since bond prices go up when interest rates go down, you might ask what risk, if any, do you face when rates fall? The answer is call risk.